Clinical Manifestations of Pancreatic Cancers





If individuals present with hyperglycemia after 50 years of old, they are likely to contract pancreatic cancers. 



アルカリ性ホスファターゼ ... アルカリ性の条件下で活性が最大となるフォスファターゼ  alkaline phosphatase;

アミノ基転移酵素  aminotransferase;

嘔吐  vomiting;

クールボアジェ徴候 ... 胆嚢は, 胆石が総胆管を閉塞したときは拡張しないが, 総胆管癌や膵頭癌などが総胆管を閉塞したときは拡張する  Courvoisier's sign;

高血糖症  hyperglycemia;

上腹部  epigastric;

食欲不振  anorexia;

膵管内乳頭粘液性腫瘍  intraductal papillary mucinous tumor;

膵機能不全 ... 膵外分泌腺の分泌不全  pancreatic insufficiency;

膵島細胞腫瘍  islet cell tumor;

睡眠障害  sleeping disorder;

全身倦怠感  generalized malaise;

総胆管  common bile duct;

トルソー症候群 ... 内臓癌との関連で起こる上下肢の突発性静脈血栓症  Trousseau's syndrome;

胆管系  biliary system;

胆嚢  gallbladder;

嚢胞性腫瘍  cystic neoplasm;

ビリルビン ... 胆汁に含まれる赤黄色の色素  bilirubin;

貧血  anemia;

閉塞性黄疸  obstructive jaundice;



Early symptoms of patients with pancreatic cancers include abdominal discomfort, nausea, vomiting, sleeping disorders, anorexia, and generalized malaise.




Credit:  Surgical knife, Feather 



Patients with pancreatic cancers more commonly have symptoms of epigastric pain, obstructive jaundice, and weight loss.



These symptoms allow the patients to have diagnose the pancreas and biliary system.  However, since these symptoms tend to occur late in the disease, they denote that the disease has advanced.


When the gallbladder is solidly distended, the distal common bile duct is obstructed by pancreatic cancer.  This symptom is referred to as Courvoisier’s sign .



Patients with pancreatic cancer may present with superficial or deep vein thrombosis.  This disease is called Trousseau’s syndrome.



The abnormalities in blood tests include anemia and high serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, and aminotransferases.



Approximately 80% of patients with pancreatic cancers present with jaundice caused by obstruction of the biliary duct.


About 80% of patients with pancreatic cancers contract diabetes or hyperglycemia.  If non-diabetic individuals aged 50 years or older contract diabetes, they should be diagnosed as having contracted pancreatic cancer.




Tumors that occur in the pancreas may not present with specific symptoms.




Patients with islet cell tumors can manifest symptoms due to excessive peptides secreted from the islet cells.


Cystic neoplasms are generally asymptomatic unless they grow.  If they have grown, the patients have symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.



Cystic neoplasms are unlikely to obstruct the common bile duct in comparison with ductal adenocarcinoma.



Intraductal papillary mucinous tumors obstructs the pancreatic duct, resulting in precipitating acute pancreatitis or pancreatic insufficiency.